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Chicago Manual of Style- Workshop: Home

CMS: A 3-minute tutorial

CMS Writing Sample- Notes Page


NoodleBib is a tool for student research which allows you to:

  • input citation information for bibliographies
  • create and organize notecards for direct quotes, paraphrases, and original ideas
  • collaborate with other students
  • share work and receive feedback from your teacher
  • write your paper using GoogleDocs
  • store all of your high school research projects


CMS Writing Sample- Footnotes

Signal Phrases

A signal phrase lets the reader know that a direct quote or a paraphrase is about to follow, and is a good tool to use when integrating ideas from various authors. 

Common Examples:
Samara Smith, an archaeologist at Harvard University, claimed that...
The New York Times journalist Ezra Martin suggested that...

Be sure to use strong verbs in your signal phrases, and stay away from verbs such as 'writes' or 'says.'  Also, avoid subjective verbs such as 'thinks' or 'feels.'  Some strong verbs include -- but are not limited to -- the following:


Acknowledged Commented     Described Implied Reported         
Added Compared Disagreed Interpreted Responded
Agreed Concurred Echoed Observed Stated
Argued Confirmed Emphasized Pointed out Suggested
Asked Denied Illustrated Refuted Warned